# Hands-On-PhysicsHEAT & TEMPERATURE

## - Investigations -

A Story
You now have a model incubator, so you take it to the doctor. She is uneasy. Besides being too small, she feels that there is something else very wrong with it. What else could be wrong with your model? After thinking about it, the doctor exclaims "One problem is that there is no fresh air. A baby would be asphyxiated in an incubator made this way. We need to provide fresh air." You don't want too much air flow or the lamp will not be able to heat the air fast enough. She has other questions: Could the incubator have a "regular" thermometer so she can tell at a glance what the temperature is inside? The incubator seems to loose quite a bit of heat, insulation might make it more efficient. We don't know what happens when a baby is put into the incubator, will it still work properly? You may have your own questions about the new model incubator.

Student Defined Extensions:
Perhaps your work so far on this project has raised questions for additional experiments. If you have a question of your own you want to study, work on it.
• Design Guide to developing an extension. Framing the question, designing the research, and reporting the results of the study.
If you need ideas, you might do one of the following.
• Extension #1 Collect Data Automatically.
Set up a computer with a lab interface that can record the temperature automatically.

• Extension #2 Add a Bulb Thermometer.

• Extension #3 Calibrate the thermostat
A semicircle of marks on the incubator box showing heat settings would make the incubator easier to use.

So far, we have been measuring the temperature of the air in an empty incubator. But what will happen with a baby?

• Extension #5 Measure the Heat Flow.
Measure the rate the lamp adds heat to the incubator, and also determine its heat loss rate.
Minimize heat loss by adding insulation to the incubator.

• Extension #6 Improve the Ventilation
Cut a small hole in the incubator and mount the fan over this hole so it blows air into the incubator. Experiment with air circulation.

### Analysis:

• Suggestions for analysis of data necessary to answer the questions posed at the start of the unit. Here you can study graphs of data the authors got, and get hints for interpreting your oun.

### Report:

• Reporting Guide for collecting, synthesizing, and reporting the work done on the "extension" you choose.

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